Federalist papers 101

The Judiciary


In the Declaration of Independence, one charge leveled against King George III was that he had “made Judges dependent on his Will alone.”

In framing a republican government, the Founders believed that an independent judiciary was indispensable.

Publius argues that the term of life tenure during good behavior and a protected salary ensure this independence.


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About the Professor

Paul Moreno is professor of history at Hillsdale College and holds the William and Berniece Grewcock Chair in Constitutional History. He earned his B.A. and M.A. at the State University of New York and his Ph.D. from the University of Maryland.


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